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Mainstream, VOL 61 No 30-31, July 22 & July 29 2023

Open Letter to the UN Secretary-General and President of the World Bank Towards Setting Serious Goals to Combat Inequality

Saturday 22 July 2023


Dear Secretary-General of the United Nations Antonio Guterres and President of the World Bank Ajay Banga,

RE: Setting serious goals to combat inequality

As a group of economists and leaders in the fight against extreme inequalities from around the world, we write to request your leadership towards ensuring that the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals and the World Bank back vital new strategic goals and indicators, that can redouble efforts to address rising extreme inequality.

We are living through a time of extraordinarily high economic inequality. Extreme poverty and extreme wealth have risen sharply and simultaneously for the first time in 25 years. Between 2019 and 2020, global inequality grew more rapidly than at any time since WW2. The richest 10% of the global population currently takes 52% of global income, whereas the poorest half of the population earns 8.5% of it. Billions of people face the terrible hardship of high and rising food prices and hunger, whilst the number of billionaires has doubled in the last decade.

We know that high inequality undermines all our social and environmental goals. The 2006 World Development Report, as well as multiple other studies, have shown that extreme inequality of the kind we are observing today has a destructive effect on society. It corrodes our politics, destroys trust, hamstrings our collective economic prosperity and weakens multilateralism. We also know that without a sharp reduction in inequality, the twin goals of ending poverty and preventing climate breakdown will be in clear conflict.

In 2015, all the governments of the world made history by setting themselves a Sustainable Development Goal to reduce inequalities – “SDG10”. Yet since then, following the COVID-19 pandemic and now the global cost of living crisis inequalities have worsened, by many measures. SDG10 remains largely ignored. Equally troubling, the main SDG10 target, based on the World Bank’s Shared Prosperity goal, does not adequately measure or monitor key aspects of inequality. Evidence from household surveys shows that one in five countries showing a positive trend in Shared Prosperity simultaneously saw inequality by other measures, like the Palma Ratio, increase, including countries such as Mongolia, Chile and Vietnam.

This summer we have a critical opportunity to strengthen our resolve to reduce this deep divide and send a clear signal to people around the world that the institutions designed to serve them are serious about ending this crisis of extreme inequality.

We must strengthen our existing goals. We must act this summer to secure agreement that the UN SDG 10 must also have strengthened targets and better metrics, looking at inequalities both between countries and within them by using indicators that track wealth as well as income inequality. We are pleased that the World Bank is reviewing its Shared Prosperity goal. The new leadership of the World Bank has a tremendous opportunity to strengthen this goal to assess inequalities across the entire spectrum of the income and wealth distribution.

There have been significant advances in inequality data, such as more accurate estimates of top incomes, helping to enable a new generation of policy making rooted in a clear distributional analysis of the impact of policy changes. These need to be systematised and pushed further, to enable high-level inequality analysis by every government. This will be the only way to ensure broad political consensus for the transformation our economies must make to a zero-carbon future.

Goals matter. Leadership matters. The Bank and UN SDGs are uniquely placed to offer the rallying call for a reduction in inequality that our divided world needs so urgently today. We ask you to seize this opportunity to back stronger goals and better metrics for both wealth and income, as well as wage shares of national income. Also, SDG10 is not a separate, standalone goal: all economic, financial, and social policies should be assessed in terms of their likely impact on this goal. This would clearly signal our collective ambition to forge a more equal world.


ID Name Role and Organisation (for printout/public release)

  • Joseph Stiglitz (Coauthor and lead signatory of the letter) Professor of economics at Columbia university; former Chief Economist at the World Bank
  • Jayati Ghosh (Coauthor and lead signatory of the letter) Professor of economics at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, USA; formerly Chairperson of the Centre for Economic Studies and Planning at the Jawaharlal Nehru University

1 A. Harooon Akram-Lodhi Professor of Economics and International Development Studies, Trent University
2 Aaron Reeves Professor, University of Oxford
3 Aasha Kapur Mehta Chairperson, Centre for Gender Studies, Institute for Human Development
4 Abu Shonchoy Associate Professor, Florida International University
5 Adeeba Kamarulzaman Pro Vice Chancellor& President, Monash University Malaysia
6 Alex Cobham Chief executive, Tax Justice Network
7 Alicia Puyana Mutis Economics Professor, Facultad Latinoamericana De Ciencias Sociales
8 Amar Yumnam Visiting Professor, Centre for Economic and Social Studies, Hyderabad, India.
9 Ameenah Gurib-Fakim, President of Mauritius 2015-2018
10 Amit Singh Khokhar Assistant Professor, Delhi Skill and Entrepreneurship University
11 Amre Moussa Secretary General of the Arab League 2001-2011, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Egypt 1991-2001
12 Andres Lazzarini Lecturer In Economics, Goldsmiths University of London
13 Andy Sumner Professor of International Development at King’s and President of the European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes.
14 Aneek Chowdhury Research Analyst, Arcus Policy Research
15 Anisuzzaman Chowdhury Former Director, Macroeconomic Policy and Development Division & Director, Statistics Division, UN-ESCAP; Adjunct Professor, Western Sydney University
16 Anita Kelles-Viitanen Former Senior Gender Advisor in ILO for South Asia; Policy Advisor on Innovation Management at IFAD and Senior Consultant on Gender at IFAD; Senior Consultant; And Former Manager of Social Development At Asian Development Bank, Socio-Cultural Value
17 Anjana Thampi Assistant Professor, O. P. Jindal Global University
18 Anthony Shorrocks Former Director, World Institute for Development Economics Research; Director, Global Economic Perspectives
19 Anuradha Chenoy Retired Professor, Jawaharlal Nehru University
20 Arthur Macewan Professor Emeritus of Economics, University of Massachusetts Boston
21 Assane Diop Minister, Adviser of The President, Presidency of The Republic of Senegal
22 Awanish Kumar Assistant Professor, Azim Premji University
23 Ban Ki-Moon Eighth Secretary-General of the United Nations Club de Madrid Honorary Member
24 Barzin Jafartash Columnist, Donyaye Eghtesad Newspaper
25 Ben Fine Former UNCTAD, UNESCWA, UNDESA and UNRISD Consultant; Emeritus Professor, SOAS
26 Bertie Ahern Former Prime Minister of Ireland Former Prime Minister of Ireland
27 Bhavani R V Consultant, FAO
28 Bonn Juego Chair, Finnish Society for Development Research
29 Boris Tadic President of Serbia 2004-2012
30 Bruno De Conti Associate Professor, University of Campinas
31 C. Saratchand Professor, Satyawati College, University of Delhi
32 Carlos Antonio Rozo Bernal Professor Titular C, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, México
33 Carlos Oya Professor of Political Economy of Development, Sosa University of London
34 Carmen Diana Deere Distinguished Professor Emerita of Latin American Studies and Food & Resource Economics, University of Florida
35 Chinglen Maisnam Professor, Manipur University
36 Chiril Gaburici Prime Minister of Moldova 2015
37 Chris Baker Editor, Siam Society
38 Dani Rodrik Ford Foundation Professor of International Political Economy at the Harvard Kennedy School
39 David Barkin Distinguished Professor, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana
40 David G Legge Member / Scholar Emeritus, People’s Health Movement / La Trobe University, Melbourne
41 Delfno Vargas Full Professor, National Autonomous University of Mexico
42 Desmond Mcneill Emeritus Professor, Sum, University of Oslo
43 Dev Nathan Professor, Institute for Human Development
44 Dilli Raj Khanal Founder Chairman, Institute for Policy Research And Development (Iprad)
45 Dimitri Papadimitriou President & Professor of Economics, Levy Economics institute of Bard College
46 Dipa Sinha Assistant Professor, Ambedkar University Delhi
47 Djoomart Otorbaev Former Prime Minister of Kyrgyz Republic
48 Dr Hibist Kassa Policy Interface Fellow, University of Leicester
49 Dr Kalim Siddiqui Senior Lecturer, University of Huddersfield
50 Dr Preeti Edakunny Researcher And Academic, EE Labs
51 Dr. H.S.Shylendra Professor, Institute of Rural Management Anand (Irma)
52 Dr. Javaid Iqbal Khan Assistant Professor, University of Kashmir
53 Dr. Laila Kholid Alfirdaus Chair of Doctoral Program in Social Sciences, Universitas Diponegoro
54 Dr. Papia Sengupta Assistant Professor/ British Academy Visiting Fellow, University of Sheffield and Jawaharlal Nehru University
55 Dr. Rimple Manchanda Associate Professor, Gd Goenka University
56 Duncan Green Professor In Practice, London School of Economics
57 Edwin Director, Openspace
58 Eka Tkeshelashvili Deputy Prime Minister of Georgia 2010-2012
59 Elizabeth M. King Nonresident Senior Fellow, Brookings Institution
60 Emilie Agner Damm Analysechef, Arbejderbevægelsens Erhvervsr¨D
61 Emmanuel Tweneboah Senzu Visiting Professor, Louis Arthur Grimes School of Law, University of Liberia
62 Enricowolleb@Gmail.Com Director, Ismeri Europa
63 Erwin Bulte Professor of Development Economics, Wageningen University
64 Falendra Kumar Professor, University of Jammu
65 Filip Vujanovic President of Montenegro 2003-2018
66 Frances Stewart Former Senior adviser to UNICEF; Emeritus Professor of Development Economics, University of Oxford
67 Francisco H. G. Ferreira Former Senior Advisor, Research Department, World Bank; Amartya Sen Professor of Inequality Studies, London School of Economics
68 Francois Bourguignon Former Chief Economist World Bank; Emeritus Professor, Paris School of Economics
69 Gabriel Zucman Professor, Paris School of Economics
70 Gabriele Koehler Former UN Resident Coordinator; former UNICEF regional advisor; Board Member, Women Engage for A Common Future
71 Geetha Gokul Assistant Professor, St. Thomas College, Thrissur, Kerala, India
72 Gerald Epstein Professor of Economics and Co-Director, Peri, University of Massachusetts Amherst
73 Gerry Rodgers Former Director, International Institute for Labour Studies; Visiting Professor, Institute for Human Development, New Delhi
74 Getaneh Gobezie Gender And Rural Finance Consultant, Wisdom Consult
75 Gilad Isaacs Executive Director, Institute for Economic Justice
76 Giorgos Kallis Professor, ICTA-UAB
77 Giovanni Andrea Cornia 1981-87, Chief Economist UNICEF HQ, UNICEF; 1987-95 Director of the Economic and Social Policies Research Programme at UNICEF-ICDC- Florence – 1995-99; Honorary Professor of Economics, University of Florence
78 Girma T. Kassie Principal Agricultural Market Economist, Icarda
79 Giuseppe Tattara Retired, University of Venice
80 Godfred A Bokpin Professor, University of Ghana
81 Guy Standing Former Director International Labour Organisation; Professorial Research Associate, SOAS University of London
82 Harmanender Singh PhD Research Scholar, Panjab University Chandigarh
83 Helen Clark Patron Helen Clark Foundation; 37th Prime Minister of New Zealand 1999-08; UNDP Administrator 2009-17,
84 Herni Ramdlaningrum Former Project Management Specialist at the UNDP; Program Manager, The PRAKARSA
85 Himanshu Associate Professor, Jawaharlal Nehru University
86 Hussain Jarwar Chief Executive Officer, Indus Consortium
87 Ian Goldin Former Vice President and Director of Policy at the World Bank; Professor, Oxford University
88 Ignacio González Assistant Professor, American University
89 Igor Luksic Prime Minister of Montenegro 2010-2012, Minister of Foreign Affairs 2012-2016
90 Ilene Grabel Distinguished University Professor, University of Denver, Josef Korbel School of international Studies
91 Irene Van Staveren Professor of Pluralist Development Studies, Erasmus University Rotterdam
92 Isabel Ortiz Former Director at ILO and UNICEF, senior advisor at UNDESA and ADB; Director, Global Social Justice
93 Ishita Mukhopadhyay Professor, University of Calcutta
94 Ismail Serageldin Vice President of the World Bank 1992-2000, Co-Chair Nizami Ganjavi International Center
95 Ivo Josipovic President of Croatia 2010-2015
96 Jadranka Kosor Prime Minister of Croatia 2009-2011
97 James B. Davies Professor Emeritus, University of Western Ontario
98 James K Boyce Professor Emeritus, University of Massachusetts Amherst
99 Jan Fisher, Prime Minister of the Czech Republic 2009-2010
100 Jan Vandemoortele Former Director of Poverty; UN Resident & Humanitarian Coordinator; Independent Researcher & Lecturer, Ex-UNICEF/Undo/Ila
101 Jayati Ghosh Professor of Economics
102 Jens Martens Executive Director, Global Policy forum Europe
103 Joaquín Arriola Full Time Professor, Universidad Del País Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibersitatea
104 John E. Ataguba Canada Research Chair in Health Economics, University of Manitoba and African Health Economics and Policy Association
105 John Miller Professor of Economics, Wheaton College
106 Jomo Kwame Sundaram Former UN-DESA Assistant Secretary-General for Economic Development; Adviser, Khazanah Research institute
107 Jonathan D. Ostry Former Deputy Director at the IMF; Professor of The Practice, Georgetown University
108 Jose Antonio Ocampo Executive Secretary of ECLAC and Under-Secretary-General for Economic and Social Affairs; Professor, Sipa, Columbia University
109 José Gabriel Palma Emeritus Senior Lecturer and Professor of Economics, Respectively, University of Cambridge and University of Santiago
110 Joseph Muscat Prime Minister of Malta 2013-2020
111 Juan Carlos Moreno Brid Associate Director ECLAC; Full Professor, Universidad Nacional Autónoma De Mexico
112 Juan Pablo Bohoslavsky Former UN Independent Expert on Debt and Human Rights; Researcher, Researcher at Conicet
113 Juan Santarcángelo DESA, UN (NY) in 2005; Professor, Conicet- Universidad Nacional De Quilmes
114 Juan Somavia Former Director General, International Labour Organization (ILO); Presidente, Foro De Politica Exterior Chile
115 Jude Onemolease Chief Executive officer, Durandel Ltd
116 Julia De Medeiros Braga Coordinator of Current Economic Affairs At Ipea , Uff And Ipea
117 Justin Yifu Lin Former Chief Economist/Senior Vice President at World Bank; Dean, Institute of New Structural Economics, Peking University
118 K Veena Research Scholar, Institute for Social and Economic Change
119 Karkada Nagaraj Adjunct Faculty, ACJ Chennai. ,
120 Kate Meagher Professor of Development Studies, London School of Economics
121 Kate Pickett Professor of Epidemiology, University of York and Health Equity North
122 Kate Raworth Co-author of the UNDP Human Development Report 1997-2001; Senior Teaching Associate, Environmental Change institute, University of Oxford
123 Kaushik Basu Former Chief Economist of the World Bank; Professor of Economics and Carl Marks Professor, Cornell University
124 Kevin Watkins Visiting Professor, LSE; former editor of the Human Development Report – From 2004 to 2008, he was director of the United Nations Development Program’s Human Development Report.
125 Korkut Boratav Consultant, UNCTAD; Consultant, UN Office at Geneva; Member, Turkish Social Science Organisation
126 Krittika Dirghangi Research Associate, Arcus Policy Research
127 Kul Chandra Gautaam Former Deputy Executive Director, UNICEF & former Assistant Secretary-General, United Nations; Chair of the Board of
128 Léonce Ndikumana Former Senior Economic Affairs Officer, United Nations Economic Commission for Africa; Distinguished Professor, University of Massachusetts Amherst
129 Leterme Prime minister of Belgium 2009 to December 2011; Trustee at NGIC
130 Lídia Brun Carrasco Research Fellow, American University
131 Lucas Chancel Co-Director, Sciences Po & World inequality Lab
132 Luis Bértola Full Professor, Universidad De La República, Uruguay
133 M. Mustafa Erdogdu Dean, Beykoz University
134 Magdalena Sepúlveda Carmona Former United Nations Special Rapporteur on Extreme Poverty and Human Rights; Executive Director, The Global Initiative for Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
135 Manfred Nitsch Professor Emeritus, Freie Universitaet Berlin
136 Maniklal Adhikary Professor of Economics, The University of Burdwan
137 Manjula Laxman Dabhi Professor, Gujarat Vidyapith
138 Manuel Branco Full Professor, University of Évora
139 Maria Fernanda Espinosa Former President of the UN General Assembly; CEO GWLvoices, 73rd President of the UNGA, GWLvoices
140 Maria S. Floro Emeritus Professor of Economics, American University
141 Mariana Mazzucato Professor And Founding Director of Iipp, University College London
142 Mario Biggeri Full Professor in Applied Economics, Department of Economics and Management University of Florence, Italy
143 Mark Malloch-Brown President Open Society Foundations Former: Deputy Secretary-General of the UN, Administrator of UNDP, Vice-President for External Affairs (World Bank), and Vice-President for United Nations Affairs (World Bank)
144 Marrit Van Den Berg Associate Professor, Wageningen University and Research
145 Martin Guzman Co-President, Columbia’s Initiative for Policy Dialogue., Columbia University
146 Matías Vernengo Professor, Bucknell University
147 Mats Karlsson Vice President, World Bank 1999-2002, Vice Chair UN High-Level Committee on Programs 2000-2010
148 Matthew Martin Executive Director, Development Finance international
149 Md. Wakilur Rahman Professor, Bangladesh Agricultural University
150 Meezan Anjum Researcher, JNU, New Delhi
151 Michael Ash Professor of Economics and Public Policy, University of Massachusetts Amherst
152 Mike Savage Professor of Sociology, London School of Economics
153 Miranda Stewart External consultant, International Monetary Fund; Professor, University of Melbourne
154 Mirko Cvetkovic STC World Bank; Member, NGIC
155 Mladen Ivanic President of Bosnia and Herzegovina 2014-2018
156 Mogens Lykketoft President of the United Nations General Assembly 2015-2016; Retired and Chairman of Company Board, former Minister, Member and Speaker of Parliament
157 Mohit PhD Research Scholar, Jawaharlal Nehru University, India
158 Mridul Eapen Honorary Fellow, Centre for Development Studies, Trivandrum
159 Mrityunjoy Mohanty Professor, Indian Institute of Management Calcutta
160 Muhammad Nur Amal Bin Mohamad Matahab Assistant Director, Prime Minister’s Department of Malaysia
161 Muhammed Abdul Khalid Research Fellow, National University of Malaysia
162 Muhammed Muqtada Former Director, Policy Planning, Employment Sector, ILO, Geneva
163 Murat Özturk Faculty Member, Kırklareli University
164 Narasimha Reddy Duvvuru Professor of Economics (Rtd), University of Hyderabad
165 Nick Robins Former Co-Director UNEP Inquiry into a Sustainable Financial System Professor in Practice – Sustainable Finance, Grantham Research institute, London School of Economics
166 Nicos Trimikliniotis Professor, University of Nicosia
167 Olivier De Schutter Former UN Special Rapporteur on the right to food
168 Oluwasola Omoju Economist/Research Fellow, National institute for Legislative and Democratic Studies
169 Omar S Dahi Professor of Economics, Hampshire College
170 Pablo Samaniego Ponce Professor, Pontificia Universidad Católica Del Ecuador
171 Parthapratim Pal Professor, Indian institute of Management Calcutta
172 Pasuk Phongpaichit Emeritus Professor in Political Economy, Faculty of Economics, Chulalongkorn University
173 Patrick Opoku Asuming Senior Lecturer, University of Ghana
174 Paul Robert Gilbert Senior Lecturer in International Development, University of Sussex
175 Petar Stoyanov President of Bulgaria 1997-2002
176 Peter Jacobs Strategic Lead Academic, Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC)
177 Philip Alston Former UN Special Rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights; John Norton Pomeroy Professor of Law, New York University
178 Prakash Loungani Former Assistant Director at IMF; Program Director, Johns Hopkins University
179 Prof Ritu Dewan Director & Professor (R), Mumbai School of Economics & Public Policy
180 Professor Imraan Valodia Pro Vice-Chancellor and Director, Southern Centre for inequality Studies, University of The Witwatersrand
181 Pulin B Nayak Member, CDE, Centre for Development Economics, Delhi School of Economics
182 Rahul Goswami Adviser, Centre for Social Markets
183 Raimonds Vejonis President of Latvia (2015-2019)
184 Raja Junankar Former Consultant to the IMF; Adjunct Professor at Unsw and emeritus professor at Western Sydney University, Unsw and Western Sydney University
185 Raja Khalidi Former Senior Economic Affairs, UNCTAD; Director General, Palestine Economic Policy Research institute (Mas)
186 Rajiv Jha Associate Professor, Economics, Shri Ram College of Commerce, Delhi University
187 Ravi Kanbur Former World Bank Chief Economist for Africa; Professor, Cornell University
188 Rexhep Meidani President of Albania 1997-2002
189 Richard Jolly Former Assistance Secretary General of UN; Honorary Professor and Research Associate of the Institute of Development Studies at the University of Sussex, University of Sussex
190 Richard Lusimbo Director General, Uganda Key Populations Consortium (Ukpc)
191 Richard Wilkinson Patron, The Equality Trust
192 Rishvanth Reddy Mucheli Guest Faculty, Christ (Deemed To Be University), India
193 Robert Hunter Wade World Bank economist in 1980 in Agricultural Research Unit and in Trade Policy Division; Professor of Global Political Economy, London School of Economics
194 Robert Pollin Distinguished University Professor of Economics, University of Massachusetts Amherst
195 Rodrigo Lopez-Pablos Volunteer, Dobro
196 Rohit Azad Faculty, Jun, Delhi, India
197 Rohith Jyothish Assistant Professor, O.P. Jindal Global University, India
198 Rolph Van Der Hoeven Former Director for Policy Coherence, ILO; Professor Emeritus, International institute of Social Studies
199 Rosen Plevneliev President of Bulgaria 2012-2017
200 Rui Mate Researcher, Center for Public Integrity
201 Sakiko Fukuda-Parr Former Director, Human Development Report Office, UNDP; Professor of International Affairs, The New School
202 Samuele Bibi Assistant Professor, Northumbria University
203 Sandra Polaski Former Deputy Director General, International Labor Organization; Senior Research Scholar, Boston University Global Economic Governance initiative
204 Sandrine Dixson-Declève President, The Club of Rome
205 Sankar Varma Research Scholar, Christ (Deemed To Be University)
206 Sarah Cliffe Former UN ASG for civilian capacities, Former Special Representative for the World Bank’s World Development Report on Conflict, Security and Development; World Bank’s chief of mission for Timor Leste (1999 to 2002), World Bank Fragile and Conflict-Affected Countries Group from 2002-2007; Director of Strategy and Operations for the East Asia and Pacific Region from 2007-2009; Director, NYU Center on international Cooperation
207 Sarah Cook Former Director, UNRISD & UNICEF Innocenti Office of Research; Visiting Professor, Southern Centre for inequality Studies
208 Sattwick Dey Biswas Research Fellow, Institute of Public Policy, National Law School of India University
209 Saul Escobar Toledo Presidente De La Junta De Gobierno, instituto De Estudios Obreros “Rafael Galván” Ac
210 Sergio Cesaratto Professor of Economics, Dipartimento Di Economia E Statistica – Università Di Siena
211 Servaas Storm Senior Lecturer, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands
212 Shipra Nigam Fellow, Institute of Human Development
213 Sunanda Sen Retired Professor, Jawaharlal Nehru University New Delhi India
214 Surajit Mazumdar Professor, Jawaharlal Nehru University
215 Taitu Heron Head/Senior Development Specialist, University of The West indies Open Campus
216 Tamas Szentes Emeritus Professor, Corvinus University, Budapest
217 Tamás Szentes Contracted regional coordinator of UNU research program on Global Crisis and Transformation, 1983-87 Academician and Professor Emeritus, Hungarian Academy of Science and Corvinus University of Budapest
218 Teresa Ghilarducci Professor, The New School
219 Terry Ray Mckinley Policy Specialist; Contributor to the Human Development Report and Director of the International Poverty Centre in Brazil Professorial Research Associate, SOAS
220 Thomas Ferguson Director of Research, institute for New Economic Thinking
221 Thomas Piketty Professor of economics,
222 Thomas Pogge Director, Global Justice Program, Yale, Yale University
223 Thomas S. O’Connell Former Senior Health Advisor, WHO and UNICEF; CEO And Founder, Global Health Synergies LLC
224 Till Kellerhoff Program Director, The Club of Rome
225 Tzipi Livni Vice-Prime Minister of Israel, Minister of Foreign Affairs 2006-2009
226 Utsa Patnaik Professor Emeritus, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Retired Teacher Jawaharlal Nehru University New Delhi India
227 Valdis Zatlers President of Latvia 2007-2011
228 Vamsi Vakulabharanam Co-Director, Asian Political Economy Program, And Associate Professor of Economics, University of Massachusetts Amherst
229 Venkatesh Athreya Adjunct Professor, Asian College of Journalism, Chennai
230 Vishnu N Ramani Research Fellow, National Institute of Public Finance and Policy, New Delhi
231 Volkan Bozkir 75th President of the UNGA;
232 Vuk Jeremić 67th President of the UNGA; President, Center for International Relations and Sustainable Development
233 Werner Raza Director, Austrian Foundation for Development Research
234 Yavuz Yasar Professor, University of Denver
235 Zahra Karimi Moughari University Professor, University of Mazandaran
236 Zlatko Lagumdzija Prime Minister of Bosnia and Herzegovina 2001-2002, deputy Prime Minister 1993-1996, 2012-2015

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